Site Bibliothèque numérique DUDDAL
Créateur est exactement KALINGANIRE A.
Cereal yield response to conservation agriculture practices in drylands of West Africa: A quantitative synthesisTo address the decline in crop productivity in the drylands of West Africa, many initiatives have focused on combating soil degradation. Various practices including (1) parkland trees associated with crops, coppicing trees, green manure, mulching, crop rotation and intercropping, and traditional soil/water conservation have been tested. The present study attempts to provide a comprehensive, quantitative synthesis of existing reports on the effect of conservation agriculture (CA) practices on crop yield response in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal. Out of a total of 155 reports found, 63 fulfilled all the appropriate criteria to be included in the meta-analysis of the effect of various conservation agriculture practices on the yield response of maize, millet and sorghum. The study revealed significant variability in cereal yield response (and hence risk) with all the practices examined. Despite the variability, the mean effects of the six CA practices on crop yield were more positive than negative except with parkland trees. However, for this last practice, species like Faidherbia albida exerts more positive impact on crop yield. Yield increases relative to the control were higher with green manure and mulching than with coppicing trees and parklands. Increases in yield in the six CA practices were higher on low to medium productivity sites for maize, millet and sorghum. Coppicing trees and rotations improved yields when the rainfall is >800 mm whereas the opposite happens with parkland and soilewater conservation measures. Mulching performed better when the rainfall is <600 mm. The variability (and hence yield risks) calls for more understanding of the processes and application of appropriate tree management to reduce crop yield losses while still providing products (fruits, leaves, wood, etc.) and services (soil carbon building up) for long-term sustainability of the production systems in drylands of West Africa.
Parklands for buffering climate risk and sustaining agricultural production in the Sahel of West AfricaIn the Sahelian zone of West Africa, crops grown under a discontinuous cover of scattered trees dominate many landscapes and constitute the so-called parklands. These systems reflect the ecological knowledge of the farmers of such risk prone environments. Agroforestry parklands are playing an important role, through trees and shrubs providing soil cover that reduces erosion and buffers the impacts of climate change. They also provide green fodder that complements crop residues for livestock feeds, and fruits and leaves for human consumption and for income generation. The interactions between various components of the system influence the ecosystem service functions of trees of parklands (provisioning, regulating and supporting services) in several ways. These ecosystem functions have beenat the center of the local ecological knowledge guiding the management options of the farmers and have also attracted the attention of scientists. Findings revealed new challenges that call for production options ensuring increased and diversified productivity of the systems while preserving the environment. Research on such challenges must adopt an inclusive approach based on local knowledge supported by science-based analyses of the socio-ecological systems in the face of high population pressure and climate change.